November 30, 2012

Ends, Naps, Death

I haven't minded much having to pray in Italian; it's a pretty language in its way and it's lovely for singing. Though in this latter aspect, it's not quite Latin. After six months here I think I'm fairly well acquainted with the liturgy in Italian, though I'm aware that I have not yet heard nor prayed the Roman Canon. Funny, isn't it? Someone more innocent might think that in the diocese of Rome the Roman Eucharistic Prayer would be heard more. Also, as I've posted about before, I find it curious and a little bit amusing that after all the fuss and workshops and bulletin inserts at home regarding the pro multis, here in the diocese of Rome I concelebrate at a Mass wherein the cup is still 'poured out for you and for all.' I also haven't bothered to learn the quiet prayers of the Mass in Italian. And since I can't remember how they go in the new English translation, I just say them in Latin.

There's just one thing in the Italian liturgy that really irks me: the blessing at the end of Night Prayer. I guess I'm attached to the English: May the all-powerful Lord grant us a restful night and a peaceful death.

To me nighttime looks forward to death. It's the end of the day, when our day ceases to be subject to revision. We did what we did, we were who we were, for better or for worse. And so with our death; when it comes it marks the moment when we have made up our minds who we were and for whom in this life, and that's it. No more revision, no more re-invention. (Of course we believe in a God so gentle and compassionate that even if we fail to fully accept our sanctification in this life, a means is provided to continue the process afterwards, and this is what we call the doctrine of Purgatory.)

To me the night also looks forward to death in its emptiness, as an empty space that awaits a new light.

And so it just seems right and just and fitting to me to pray for my death at the hinge between the day and the night. That's why I just can't get used to the Italian version of the blessing: Il Signore ci conceda una notte serena e un riposo tranquillo. "May the Lord grant us a serene night and a tranquil rest." Riposo? That's just doesn't do it for me.  'Buon riposo' is what the brothers say to each other after lunch, in the sense of 'have a nice nap.' Now there's nothing wrong with praying for a night of tranquil repose; I often pray that I might sleep during the night. But I'm not that worried about it. More and more, whether I sleep or not during the night I feel the same during the day. I'm much more concerned about death. Not that I'm really afraid of dying, at least I don't think I am; I just want to do it well.

To be fair, the Latin is almost another thing entirely: Noctem quietam et finem perfectum concedat nobis Dominus omnipotens. 'May the Almighty Lord grant us a quiet night and a perfect end.' I'll admit, I do like the 'end' here. It has a wonderful ambiguity; am I praying that my end as a historical person (i.e. my earthly death) might be perfect, or am I praying for my final end in eternity? The answer, of course, is both or at least whatever it is I need to be praying for. That's the beauty of ambiguous, mysterious language in prayer. It's what grace needs it to be. Fine, I'm happy to pray for my end, but in the end I like the English the best, when I pray for a peaceful death.

November 29, 2012

Pious Requests and Laudable Desires

I have noticed something that had never occurred to me before about the feast of All Saints of the Seraphic Order, or All Franciscan Saints, which we celebrate today.

At some moments I have wondered if this observance was perhaps an expression of that certain Franciscan chauvinism one encounters sometimes. What, All Saints isn't good enough for you? You need to have your own All Saints day?

But over time I've started to think of this feast as an expression of gratitude to God for the gift of the particularly Franciscan sanctity that he has given to the Church, and that catches for him the hearts of so many. In a way this thought is confirmed for me by something very plain and obvious, but which for whatever reason I never noticed before: November 29 is the anniversary of the bull Solet annuere of Honorius III, which includes the later Rule of St. Francis, which remains our rule today.

Bull of Pope Honorius III 
Bishop, Servant of the servants of God,
to his Beloved Sons,
Brother Francis and the other brothers
of the Order of Lesser Brothers,
Health and Apostolic Benediction. 
The Apostolic See is accustomed to grant the pious requests and favorably to accede to the laudable desires of its petitioners. Therefore, beloved sons in the Lord, attentive to your pious prayers, We confirm with Our Apostolic Authority, and by these words ratify, the Rule of your Order, herein outlined and approved by Our predecessor, Pope Innocent of happy memory, which is as follows... (trans. FA:ED)

Old Honorius must be one of the most invoked popes in the whole of the Church Militant, given that he is mentioned by every Franciscan friar when he takes his vows.

It seems fitting that we should celebrate All Saints of the Seraphic Order on the anniversary of the confirmation and ratification of the Rule, as inextricably bound up it is--as a document and ideal--with Franciscan sanctity. It's a sanctity that once caught my mind and heart strongly enough to make me join the Franciscan Order not once, but twice. And I pray God would again use it to convert me to his will, for up until now I have done little, or nothing.

November 27, 2012

Vatican Visit and Some Cultural Learnings

The other morning I got a phone call, which was a rare enough thing in itself. The caller invited me to come see him in the Vatican. How exciting, I thought, and I put myself together as soon as I could and headed out to the bus stop.

Once I was on the second bus, however, I started to have one of those anxious, 'who will roll away the stone' kind of moments. In my various visits to the neighborhood, I had many times seen the good Vatican gendarmes shooing people away from the gates and entrances, or blowing whistles at those careless enough to step beyond where they were permitted to be. It happened to me myself recently; thinking that I would use the restroom next to the post office on the right side of St. Peter's Square (ad orientem), but not realizing that whole area was closed for some reason or other, I got the shooing gesture and the, Prego, Padre, tutto chiuso. So how was I supposed to get into the Vatican to get to this appointment?

I got down there too early. So I said my rosary, pacing up and down inside the south colonnade. I think my picture was taken a few times. I explained to some Dutch visitors the nature of consistories. I listened to the sounds of creche construction. When the time came, I approached one of the gates.

This leads me to the first of two cultural reflections in this post. I have learned that the best way to approach authorities or officials here is to self-present in a supplicating, deferential, and self-deprecating manner. If, as an American, you feel like you're at the point at which you fear to be thought obsequious and insincere (the reader can insert other terms more vulgar and perhaps more fitting), then you've got it. You must suppress the American idea that the most important thing is to present, as quickly and as clearly as possible, exactly what you need so that the person may deal with you efficiently and be on to the next thing. On the contrary, the most important thing is how you express your recognition of the gloriousness of the post occupied in this life by the official before you. Whether this glorious post happens to be Cardinal of the Roman Church or ticket lady at the train station, it makes no difference. The same principle obtains.

So I approached the gendarme at the gate. Forgive me, Sir, for taking your time, but I don't know how this works. So-and-so invited me to come here and meet him at place such-and-such. Could you help me know what to do? That did the trick. Why, yes, Father, it works like this: we will call so-and-so right away. Once they had done this, they gave me some directions to the place where I was to go, and released me into the streets of the Vatican. I have to say that it was a bit of a thrill, setting foot in the Vatican for the first time. (I mean apart from St. Peter's, the Museums, and the Post Office.)

Secrets of the Vatican: the Gas Station

My visit included a couple of pilgrimages inside St. Peter's, such as my first visit to the altar of Pope Blessed John Paul II since he's been upstairs. It was my first time in St. Peter's since the early morning in 2007 when I went to Mass in Polish on the feast of St. Maximilian Kolbe. It struck me that St. Peter's was one of the very  few Catholic churches I had visited before becoming a catechumen. "Why not start at the top?" offered my host.

This brings me to my second cultural reflection. One of the places I got to visit on my trip into the Vatican was the Domus Sanctae Marthae, the 'conclave hotel' built by John Paul II. Now I remember back around the time of the last conclave there was some noise about this place in the press, somebody saying that it was scandalously opulent and someone else saying no, it's simple and monastic, or something like that. They can't both be true, so what gives? In reflecting on this, I have come to realize a cultural difference regarding the nature of luxury.

We Americans tend to think that costliness brings with it comfort. When you go to the house of a well-to-do friend, you expect to enjoy the classy drink you are offered while you sit on a comfy couch, or at least something like that. You get what I mean. But in Italy, you see, or at least in the world of the Roman Church and her affiliate institutions, these things don't automatically go together as we Americans presume they should. It is not at all strange here to enter a room with a shiny marble floor, adorned by luxurious curtains and works of art in classic style, and find there for sitting the sort of small, hard, straight-backed chair that brings to mind something from your elementary school. This is how, perhaps, a place in the Vatican could seem to us both fancy and monastic at the same time.

November 26, 2012

Ad Vesperas Sancti Laurentii

Gentle Advice From The Italian Ordo

The new Ordo that comes ahead of the new liturgical year is like the ecclesiastical equivalent of the new box of crayons on the first day of school.

Finding an Ordo for the year of grace 2013 in my mailbox yesterday, I noted right away that the Italian version (or at least the version of the Capuchin provinces of the middle part of Italy) is somewhat bigger and more beautiful than what we have in the States:

It also has a heap of information presented by way of preface, some of it useful, like the faculties granted to priests of the Order to absolve from certain censures and excommunications, as well as the faculty to commute private vows. (I remember reading about that last one when I was first ordained and thinking that I would never have the chance to exercise such a thing. On the contrary, I have had a couple of occasions to use it.) Other parts seem somewhat random, like Universae Ecclesiae in between the sections of pastoral considerations for Celiac disease and the Eastern Orthodox, respectively.

However, one section caught my eye especially, on how to improve celebrations of the Liturgy of the Hours. Most of the points are pretty standard, e.g. sing, don't pretend things are optional when they aren't, etc. A couple of the points, though, are fun:

"In the recitation of the Offices a 'spoken' style is used, thus avoiding those emotional emphases that disturb praying in common."

Anyone who has been in religious life knows what that's about. So much for Franciscan prayer being 'affective.'

"If a minister makes an error with an antiphon or something else, avoid brusque and immediate corrections, which are ill-suited to the climate of prayer."

There's one some religious could pray over.

November 25, 2012

The Funny Feast of Christ the King

I woke up this morning thinking about today, the last Sunday of Ordinary Time, the solemnity of Christ the King. In a way that it hadn't before, it struck me as an odd day. I'll try to explain how.

The most powerful doctrines are the ones we hold as assumptions, moods, 'interpretive keys,' 'lenses,' and the like. The less they are explicitly taught and simply absorbed from one's surroundings, the more powerful and normative they become. One such doctrine I learned early on in my Catholic journey and theological education was a certain way of understanding the relationship between history and eschatology.

It was said that in the past there was too strong a focus on an other-worldly salvation, on an eschatology which was reduced to the four 'last things' (death, judgement, Heaven, hell). This absolved Christians of taking seriously enough the need to serve the salvation and well-being of people in the here and now. But since we modern Christians knew well that we would be judged according to our never-questioned reading of the Judgment scene in Matthew 25, our work was less in preaching, catechizing, 'making disciples of all nations,' but in serving the needs of the 'least of our brothers and sisters.' Our ancestors in the great modern flowering of apostolic religious life did this by finding new forms and building new institutions to serve the needs of people. For us it wasn't to do such things ourselves, but to try to make civil authorities do them instead. This was called the shift from 'charity' to 'justice.' It was one of the great dogmas of my Catholic upbringing.

Now maybe I make a caricature of these things and thus a straw man, but the theological insight behind them is solid; eschatology isn't about a far-away world that renders the current reality less important, but about a Kingdom that is transcendent, always and everywhere present, available, and inviting history into its beatitude.

To reiterate the the basic doctrine: we used to talk about other-worldly salvation, but now we are about peace and justice in the here and now. But here's the funny thing about Christ the King; as an observance, it has journeyed along the opposite trajectory.

The reformed liturgy presents the feast of Christ the King as a celebration of the rule of the cosmic Christ, the alpha and the omega. The day crowns the apocalyptic theme of the last days of Ordinary Time and makes us ready for the similarly apocalyptic first Sunday of Advent. The readings for the Mass and the Divine Office seem to emphasize Christ the King as a day to reflect on the end point of time, history, and God's purpose, without a lot of interference of the messiness of the 'here and now.'

It's funny because the feast of Christ the King used to be a lot more pointed toward the current moment, with much heavier political overtones. Here are a couple of quotes from the encyclical Quas primas of Pius XI, which established the observance:

In the first Encyclical Letter which We addressed at the beginning of Our Pontificate to the Bishops of the universal Church, [Ubi arcano Dei consilio] We referred to the chief causes of the difficulties under which mankind was laboring. And We remember saying that these manifold evils in the world were due to the fact that the majority of men had thrust Jesus Christ and his holy law out of their lives; that these had no place either in private affairs or in politics: and we said further, that as long as individuals and states refused to submit to the rule of our Savior, there would be no really hopeful prospect of a lasting peace among nations. (1) 
Nor is there any difference in this matter [i.e. the "empire of our Redeemer"] between the individual and the family or the State; for all men, whether collectively or individually, are under the dominion of Christ. In him is the salvation of the individual, in him is the salvation of society... If, therefore, the rulers of nations wish to preserve their authority, to promote and increase the prosperity of their countries, they will not neglect the public duty of reverence and obedience to the rule of Christ. (18) 
When once men recognize, both in private and in public life, that Christ is King, society will at last receive the great blessings of real liberty, well-ordered discipline, peace and harmony. (19)

That's 1925. Kind of shocking, isn't it? Somewhere along the forty years between Quas primas and Vatican II, the Church decided to make friends with the project of European modernity, and with it the idea of secular, pluralistic, modern democracy. And so, as we turned from other-worldly salvation to justice and peace, the funny feast of Christ the King had to take the opposite path and be changed from a politically-charged observance to a work of awe and wonder at the world to come. The politics of Christ the King went out of style, but since you can't just get rid of a feast day instituted by a Pope, the best thing you can do is to make it mystical.

But now, another fifty years on since Vatican II, perhaps the concerns of those who made such a fuss about 'modernism' are looking a little less stuffy and reactionary, as the happy friendship between the Church and modern liberal democracy starts to show some signs of stress.

Christus vincit, Christus regnat, Christus imperat

November 21, 2012

The Veil

A part of the new mosaic reredos in the church here at the International College 'San Lorenzo da Brindisi' by Marko Ivan Rupnik, SJ.

Moses' veil protects him from seeing the the full glory of God, namely the incarnation, the motherhood of Mary in the burning bush.

There seem to be different feelings about the image. One the one hand, it brings forth the mystery of the incarnation in its foreshadowing and inchoate revelation in the old covenants; the burning yet unconsumed bush as a type of the virginity of Mary, the revelation of the divine name in its relation to the procession of the Word from the Father and the human conception of that same word by the Holy Spirit.

On the other hand, it brings up Paul's sometimes uncomfortable interpretation of the veil in 2 Corinthians 13, wherein the veil remains to this day, keeping the Jews from understanding the scripture when Moses is read.

To me, whatever one makes of it, the striking nature of the image invites contemplation of the Mystery who is the hope of our gaze, as we pray for our transformation "into the same image from glory to glory, as from the Lord who is the Spirit." (Cf. 2 Corinthians 3:18)

November 20, 2012

A Little Rationalization

Apparently the current project of this foreigner is supposed to be the Italian carta d'identità, the 'identity card.' Unfortunately, I just haven't yet found the energy to do it. As far as I can tell, it would involve leaving around six in the morning and taking a combination of buses and trains to get to the place (either 3 and 0 or 1 or 2 and 2, it seems to me), an adventure which I would probably have to repeat anyway, guessing that the first attempt would be just to figure out the place and the required procedures, how many photocopies of exactly what, arcane tax stamps, etc., are required. So, given also that I'm not sure I even need this thing, I haven't yet found the energy for this project, as I say. It is, I'm told, a prerequisite step to obtaining an Italian driver's license, which is supposed to be a difficult project in itself. "The questions are designed to make you err," one of the brothers said of the test. But I'm not really sure I would even want an Italian driver's license.

So, I was thinking of what I would say when and if I am ever challenged on my failure to have yet executed this project of getting the carta d'identità. It occurred to me that I could say that it was culturally insensitive to ask me to obtain such a thing; to us Americans, a national identity card seems like an instrument of totalitarianism and thus contrary to our ideals. Everyone else seems to benefit from the cult of cultural sensitivity, so why shouldn't I?

November 19, 2012

John of the Cross

One of the blessed coincidences of my current disposition is living under the same roof as the Capuchin Central Library. I had to go to what we in the States would call an 'orientation' to get a key, but it was worth it. Yesterday I was grateful to find that they had an ICS Collected Works of John of the Cross. I borrowed it, I hope with the correct procedure. You fill out the duplicate form with the location of the book (in this case 125 G 41), the names of the book and the author or editor, and your own name and room number. You put the top leaf (white) in the place where the book was, and the bottom leaf (rose) in the golden box by the door to the library. When the nice librarian first explained all this about special keys and depositing the rose note in the golden box, I thought I was in some kind of fairy tale.

Anyway, back to John of the Cross. I'm so grateful to him. His writing just sets me back on track when I need it. For a long time I couldn't read him. When I was first a Catholic I tried to read all kinds of spiritual books. I thought I wanted to read John of the Cross because he was supposed to be deep. But a lot of that was a vainglorious lust to obtain 'forms of prayer' that I imagined to be more 'advanced' or something. And so, in his mercy, the Holy Spirit prevented me from reading the mystical doctor. I would try, but I just couldn't. Then one day, I could. I guess I was ready or at the right moment. It was in Marathon, Wisconsin. It was towards the end of novitiate, and we were on retreat in preparation for our temporary religious profession. I had found an edition of The Ascent of Mount Carmel, I think in one of those sturdy old Doubleday Image paperbacks. What a blessed resource those must have been at a certain moment in English-speaking Catholic experience! I picked it up and read it, slowly, deliberately, and with great interest. All of a sudden I could read John's doctrine, and see myself and my own struggles in what he described.

Perhaps what I find most helpful in St. John, what is most useful for me to recall for myself over and over, is what you might call his 'fundamental theology' of prayer and the spiritual life. There's this abiding sense in his writings that prayer and the spiritual life are basically about something God is up to with the individual soul. It is God who wills to put us into some trial or other so that our faith and trust might become more simple and pure, that our wills might let go and become more identified with his. Based on this, the daily, unglamorous work of prayer arrives in three parts.

First and most fundamentally, consent. It is God who wills, who desires to draw us to himself and who--towards this end--wills to place us in trials for our purgation. And so our work, if it can even be called such, for it is more an undoing than a doing, becomes a letting go and a consenting.

Second, the spiritual life is a work of discernment in the sense of seeking an understanding. John says over and over that one of our basic hindrances is that we don't understand ourselves or the action of God in us. And perhaps worse, as he also says many times, those who are supposed to be guides and directors on the spiritual path often enough don't understand these things either. Diagnosis of our spiritual condition, a good sense of its graces and opportunities, sicknesses and temptations, is not an easy or automatic thing, either in our examination of our own conscience or in the interpretation of a director. This can be a terrifying caution and a source of awful doubt and confusion, but it is also itself a school of abandonment to Providence.

Third, the spiritual life becomes a life of clearing things away. Since it is God's work in us, our job is only to clear away those things that hinder his will in us, that slow us down in letting ourselves be drawn into our identification with him. John expresses this most simply in his advice on how to enter into the first of his 'nights', the active night of sense in The Ascent of Mount Carmel, 1, 13, 4:

Cualquier gusto que se le ofreciere a los sentidos, como no sea puramente para honra y gloria de Dios, renúncielo y quédese vacío de él por amor de Jesucristo.
"Renounce and remain empty of any sensory satisfaction that is not purely for the honor and glory of God. Do this out of love for Jesus Christ" (trans. ICS)

Only the empty soul is ready to be filled by God, only the naked heart free enough to run to him.

Il semble que la perfection soit atteinte non quand il n'y a plus rien à ajouter, mais quand il n'y a plus rien à retrancher. (Antoine de Saint Exupéry, Terre des Hommes)
"Perfection is finally attained not when there is no longer anything to add, but when there is no longer anything to take away." (trans. Lewis Galantière)

November 16, 2012

Tape Measures and Memorial Cards

Sometimes, just to keep me going, God gives the grace of a little awe at the journey.

Today I'm thinking of a night back in the late winter or early spring of 1995. We were postulants to the Order of Friars Minor at Holy Cross Friary on Soundview Ave in the Bronx. After supper we got in our van and drove over the river into New Jersey, where we visited the friary where the brother tailor lived. Juniper Capece, OFM. You couldn't forget him. There we were measured for the habits we would receive later that year as our novitiate began. I remember it being a fun time; Br. Juniper joked with us and gave us beer.

I have a picture of the two of us from that night; Br. Juniper has the tape measure around my neck, and is either speaking or laughing. I have a look of devout, awful solemnity about me. I still get tempted to the latter, though it feels so wrong to me now that it never sticks. The former I miss somewhat and wish I could find again.

Br. Juniper died a couple of weeks ago. Eighty years of life on this earth, sixty of religious profession. I still have the name tags from the habit I got from him. One of them is in my New American Bible. The other is in my Roman-Franciscan Christian Prayer. He also made me a Franciscan Crown for my habit. When I left the novitiate I sent it back so that he could give it to somebody else.

It graces me with a little awe when I think that on that night, in spite of my awful solemnity even given the beer and the fun, God knew that eighteen years later I would have left the OFM, spent some time on my own, praying, working, seeking him, that I would finally enter the Capuchins and twelve years into that find myself here in Rome.

On that same night there was also a kid who must have been a freshman in high school. Did he have any idea that in ten years or so he would enter the Capuchins and then, after some years, switch over to the OFM? I don't know if he knew. But I know that God knew it. And God knew that he would inspire this friar to send me a memorial card from Br. Juniper's funeral, all the way from Maryland to Rome, so that I could be encouraged by the memory of my journey and how, despite all of my distraction and nonsense and interior darkness and sin, it is God who leads me by the his own subtle and obscure light, his rayos de oscuridad, and suffers on the Cross so that I might have the courage to take the next step.

Thank you, brothers.

Br. Juniper Capece, OFM, requiescat in pace.

November 15, 2012

On Candy Corn And The Cross

Brothers, I could not talk to you as spiritual people, but as fleshly people, as infants in Christ. I fed you milk, not solid food, because you were unable to take it. Indeed, you are still not able, even now, for you are still of the flesh. (1 Corinthians 3:1-3a)

One of the things about prayer is getting through your head that prayer is answered. And it's not even that, because when we say 'pray is answered' we're just embracing a sort of optical illusion of the spiritual vision; prayer is the answer, since it is our response to the Holy Spirit praying in us, through the Son to the Father.

Sometimes we don't notice the answer to prayer because it's so immediate, obvious, and plain.

Here's an example. How many times in my life as a Christian have I prayed in something like this form:

'God, I am willing to suffer, I am willing to suffer doubt, uncertainty, confusion, even to just not even knowing what I am or what you are. I know that this is part of what it means to embrace the Cross of Christ, and it is even what I am asking for when I take Holy Communion and put his broken and sacrificed Body into my body and soul. But please, Lord, just give me something today, a little consolation, a little something or other, interior or exterior, to give me enough certainty, enough courage and strength to get through the day. But if not, Lord, I offer you the sufferings of my doubt and confusion for everyone in this world who might be in despair today or who suffers in any way.'

It was years and years before I realized that to be inspired to make the act of the last phrase was the answer to the prayer of the phrase before it. To be given to make the final act of the will was the consolation, the grace, appropriate for me to receive as an answer to prayer. I just didn't recognize it as such because I was looking for something less immediate, more grand, and more consoling to the flesh. I wanted the milk, not the solid food.

In the life of the body, we take for granted that a moment comes when we move from our mother's milk to solid food. We grow up, physically anyway, and eventually we wouldn't even want to eat candy corn for breakfast. But in the spiritual life the analogous transitions (of which the physical ones are signs and vestiges) can be much harder to make. And if we're always looking for the spiritual candy corn in our prayer, we're not going to see the graces God is just dying--literally--to give us.

November 14, 2012

New Breviary Hopes

I heard yesterday with great delight that our bishops in the United States had voted in favor of a project to develop a new translation of the Liturgy of the Hours. This is, of course, a necessary thing given the new translation of the Roman Missal. At the very least, we need to be relieved of the funny situation of using the new Sunday and sanctoral collects for Mass while still having the old ones printed in our breviaries.

So, given that I am full of opinions about breviaries--and for this I make no apology, since, as one notes, breviaries are the only things (apart from our clothes) that the Rule permits us to have--I offer my hopes for the glorious day when I unbox a new English Liturgy of the Hours. Please, my brothers...

  • Let us have the three Magnficat and Benedictus antiphons for each of the three Sunday hinge hours, instead of this stingy business we have now where Evening Prayer I gets year A, Morning Prayer gets year B, and Evening Prayer II gets year C, such that the antiphon only corresponds to the Sunday gospel once during the Sunday hours. Every other edition I have ever seen gives all three for each.
  • Point the psalmody for singing.
  • It's a little thing, but put the daggers for when the antiphon doubles the first line of a psalm so that it might be skipped, as is right and just. I don't know why we don't have these.
  • Include the Latin hymns, or at least translations of them. Both would be best.
  • Make the cards for the gospel canticles, festal psalmody, Te Deum, etc., tough.
  • Dump the psalm prayers.
  • Six ribbons are better than five. That way there's one each for Proper of Seasons, Ordinary, Psalter, Night Prayer, Proper of Saints, and Commons.
  • Give us books just as tough as the Catholic Book Publishing Company's 4-volume set we have now. Say what you want about them, but those books are strong.

Thanks in advance for all of your work!

It was no longer possible to consider myself, abstractly, as being in a certain "state of life" which had certain technical relations to other "states of life." All that occupied me now was the immediate practical problem of getting up my hill with this terrific burden I had on my shoulders, step by step, begging God to drag me along and get me away from my enemies and from those who were trying to destroy me. 
I did not even reflect how the Breviary, the Canonical Office, was the most powerful and effective prayer I could possibly have chosen, since it is the prayer of the whole Church, and concentrates in itself all the power of the Church's impetration, centered around the infinitely mighty Sacrifice of the Mass--the jewel of which the rest of the Liturgy is the setting: the soul which is the life of the whole Liturgy and of all the Sacramentals. All this was beyond me, although I grasped it at least obscurely. All I knew was that I needed to say the Breviary, and say it every day. 
Buying those books at Benziger's that day was one of the best things I ever did in my life. The inspiration to do it was a very great grace. There are few things I remember that give me more joy. (Thomas Merton, The Seven Storey Mountain, 329-330)

November 13, 2012


Ever since I bought my first real breviary, the Daily Prayer I picked up at Galway Cathedral in the spring of 1993, I've been familiar with the document, printed toward the front in editions of the Liturgy the Hours, called the 'General Roman Calendar.' It's the calendar, mostly of the sanctoral cycle, of those observances that are celebrated throughout all of the Latin Catholic Churches. For example, St. Francis of Assisi. He might be a memorial at home in the United States, a feast here in Italy because he is the national patron saint, and a solemnity for us Franciscans, but everywhere in the world the liturgy celebrates St. Francis each October 4.

Now apart from living within this General Roman Calendar, I've also been aware of some of the proper or particular calendars I've lived in; those of the United States and the Franciscan Order, to take the clearest examples. But it never crossed my mind, until today that is, that in addition to the General Roman Calendar there should be such a thing as a particular Roman calendar, a liturgical calendar proper to the diocese of Rome. Today, however, I realized as much when I read the little weekly liturgical calendar that the brethren make here (to which I'm paying special attention because it's my week to be lector) and saw that today was the memorial of Pope St. Nicholas I. You won't find him in your breviary, because his day only seems to be observed here in Rome, where it is an obligatory memorial, and, somewhat unfortunately for us Franciscans, it suppresses the optional memorial of Didacus of Alcalá.

I've been looking around for a copy of the proper liturgical calendar for the diocese of Rome, but haven't found it yet, even on the wonderfully named website of the diocese,

According to Wikipedia, Pope St. Nicholas was most famous for having denied an annulment to Lothair II, king of Lotharingia, so he could get unmarried to Teutberga, daughter of Boso the Elder, and get married to his mistress Waldrada. Who wouldn't want to marry a girl named Waldrada? Or be relieved of having a father-in-law named Boso, for that matter. I have to say, people had cooler names in the olden days.

In any case, this Roman observance of Pope St. Nick meant that, for the first time I can remember, I got to read the bit of sermon from Leo the Great that the Common of Pastors provides for the Office of Readings for a Pope. I liked this part in particular:

"As the faith stands firm in what Peter believed in Christ, so it stands firm in what Christ instituted in Peter."

Of course it works better in Latin: sicut permanet quod in Christo Petrus credidit, ita permanet quod in Petro Christus instituit.


November 12, 2012

Thoughts From The Bus Stop

Athanasius, Archbishop of Alexandria, of holy memory, begged Abba Pambo to come down from the desert to Alexandria.  He went down, and seeing an actress he began to weep.  Those who were present asked him the reason for his tears, and he said, “Two things make me weep: one, the loss of this woman; and the other, that I am not so concerned to please God as she is to please wicked men.” (Sayings of the Desert Fathers, trans. Benedicta Ward)

On various sorts of errands I've spent a good amount of time hanging out at bus stops in recent days. One of the things I do while waiting is contemplate the advertisements, those posted at the stop and those on the other buses that pass. What can I say; I'm a five on the Enneagram, 'the observer.'

They intrigue me. Most of all they just impress me; of all of the texts and images I encounter, ads are probably the most carefully and deliberately constructed. I'm in awe of it in a way. The meticulous arrangement of clothes, makeup, posture, expression, etc., to make this person look attractive or cool according to the subtle modulations of fashion, the angle by which a new car is viewed such that it makes you think that it could cure that place inside that feels so powerless, the orchestration of a group scene to make you imagine somewhere inside that if you could hang out with those people--and of course drink or eat or smoke what they're having--then you could feel relaxed or elegant or accepted or loved, and not so awkward and ugly and unappealing as you feel now.

It's really quite impressive, the knowledge of human nature as the insecure mess in which we experience it, wounded as it is by the vanities and lusts and miseries we insist upon for ourselves (and each other) with our sins.

Reflecting on all that, the words of Pambo came back to me. If only I was so eager--with such attention to detail and with such keen precision and cleverness!--to please God in his desire for my salvation, my wholeness, as the advertisers are to play on the wounds of original sin!

November 11, 2012

Blessed Eugene Bossilkov, CP, Bishop and Martyr

Now sometimes I don't think the threats to our religious freedom in the United States are as grave as some of us are making them out to be. Or at least not yet. Nevertheless I was thinking about these things as I read about Blessed Eugene Bossilkov, CP, bishop and martyr, in the Martyrology today.

He was executed by the government of Bulgaria, by this sentence (via Wikipedia and this site, note links oddly placed in lower-right corner):

By virtue of articles 70 and 83 of the penal code, the court condemns the accused, Eugene Bossilkov, to be sentenced to death by firing squad, and all his goods confiscated...Dr.Eugene Bossilkov, Catholic bishop; completed his religious studies in Italy and was trained by the Vatican for counter-revolutionary activities and espionage. He is one of the directors of a clandestine Catholic organization. He was in touch with diplomats from the imperialist countries and gave them information of a confidential nature. The accused convoked a diocesan council in which it was decided to combat communism through religious conferences, held in Bulgaria, activities called 'a mission.' No appeal of his sentence is possible. The High Court, Sophia, Bulgaria, October 3, 1952

The sentence was carried out 60 years ago today. That's not so long ago. Switch out Communism for some of the errors of our own time which one is not allowed to question, update 'mission' to 'New Evangelization,' and the same sentence would be ready for new martyrs.

I was brought up with the standard liberal doctrine that the 'separation of church and state' was for the protection of civil government from religion. And I wouldn't deny that sometimes this is a good thing. But it's also to protect people's legitimate desire to be faithful to God from the excesses of human power, which so easily decides that it doesn't need to refer itself to its Creator.

Blessed Eugene, pray for us.

November 10, 2012

et vobis fratres

Yesterday at our house chapter one of the friars brought up a tradition I had never heard of. He said that at one time, when a friar was transferred from one place to another, he would kneel in the middle of the refectory before leaving, asking pardon of any of the brothers whom he might have offended and announcing his forgiveness for anyone he might have sinned against.

It seems to me a pity to have lost such a thing.

Maybe I'm being overly dramatic or indulging temptations to shame, but I think of my various transitions in the Order, my moves from one place to another, and I can't help but imagine that my heart and my vocation would be more at peace if, before leaving a place, I had the chance to kneel in the middle of the refectory and ask the brothers' pardon for any way that I had sinned against anyone, and to say that in whatever way I was able to accept the grace of forgiveness from God, I desired to forgive them too.

November 9, 2012

Between Flaminio and Kendall/MIT

I think I miss Boston a little bit. The other morning I must have been half asleep or at least spacing out when I was riding Metro A from Cornelia to Termini. As the train plodded out of the earth to cross the Tiber, I opened my eyes half expecting to see the Museum of Science or the Hatch Shell. I guess I not only didn't know what city I was in, I didn't know which side of the train I was sitting on. I guess ten semesters of Red Line rides from Downtown Crossing to Harvard Square leave their mark on the soul.

It's funny though...Rome and Boston have their similarities. Sure, the thick mythology on which the idea of each city rests is somewhat different, but think about it. The Metro and the T, the Tiber and the Charles, the GRA and Route 128, the neighborhood identities, the tourists.

Maybe it's just that my new job here reminds me of certain classic Boston tunes.


Some signs by which a native speaker of English may notice that he has already been in Italy too long:

He writes, 'letter of obbedience' without noticing the error.

He says, 'cancel' when he means 'erase.'

He says, 'control' when he means 'check.'

November 8, 2012

Feast of the Subtle Doctor

Today is the first time I ever remember celebrating the feast of Blessed John Duns Scotus. I'm not saying that he's not on the most recent Franciscan calendars at home, but we certainly don't have any propers and I don't remember ever observing his day. In any case, he seems to be an obligatory memorial for us here in Italy, and here's his collect in the 2011 Santorale Francescano: Collectio Missarum (Padua: Editrici Francescane):

Father, source of all wisdom,
who in blessed John Duns Scotus, priest,
believer in the immaculate conception
of the Virgin Mary,
have given us a teacher of life and of thought,
grant that, illuminated by his example
and nourished by his doctrine,
we might hold fast to Christ.
He who is God, and lives and reigns with you,
in the unity of the Holy Spirit,
for ever and ever.

From the Martyrology:

At Cologne in German Lotharingia, blessed John Duns Scotus, priest of the Order of Friars Minor, who, born in Scotland, taught the disciplines of philosophy and theology as an illustrious master at Canterbury, Oxford, Paris, and at last, Cologne, with subtle genius and wonderful fervor.

Pray for us.

UPDATE: I notice that The Smithy has posted the actual collect.

November 7, 2012

Lonely? Italy Is Here To Help

Yesterday was one of those adventures.

Back in August, when I finally concluded my application for the permesso di soggiorno, or residency permit, at the beloved Via del Mascherino 12, I signed some paper, promising to show up for a 'session of civic formation.' I didn't think much about it at the time; it was so far in the future in terms of my life here in Italy. That day there was an Irish Missionary of Charity there helping some of her sisters make the application. I asked her what this 'session' was all about. She said that it was a class to teach foreigners how to eat spaghetti without cutting it. I was disappointed to find out that this wasn't part of the lessons, but now I'm getting ahead of myself.

I decided that it wasn't a habit day. So off I went in my post-punk shoes and my faded Yankee cap. I took the roundabout bus to the Cornelia subway stop. There I had my first Franciscan encounter of the day. A sister in a beige habit with a Franciscan cord asked me, "is this the side that goes to Termini?"

"," I said, "e pace e bene!"

"Uh...pace e bene, grazie," she managed in an awkward reply, clearly thrown off. More on this issue later.

So I rode the train from Cornelia to Termini, changed trains, and rode Metro B down to St. Paul's Basilica. I figured that Via Ostiense 131/L, where this 'session' was supposed to be, couldn't be too far up from there, and I really wanted to visit the Basilica, which became a sort of spiritual home for me during the three months I lived in Garbatella. There was a big Mass going on, in red. A bishop was presiding. I didn't get close enough to see who it was. The only confessor on duty had a sign outside his confessional: "Italiano." That's short for 'I hear confessions in Italian and only in Italian.' So I did my best to get out an integral confession in Italian. I hadn't been since moving here to the Curia; despite living in a place lousy with priests, the Holy Spirit has not yet revealed to me whom I ought to approach as a confessor. Or maybe I'm resisting. But in any case it had been a while.

I said my penance in front of the altar of the Assumption and took off. I walked through that park that's there and joined the Via Ostiense. Soon I came to the dreaded 131/L. It looked like a bleak place from that start. But I was still early. Who knows how long this will take, I thought to myself; maybe I should eat something. So I kept on going for a bit and ate a terrible kebab. I mean, really disappointing.

After that I walked back to Via Ostiense 131/L and found the line where I would join my fellow foreigners. We showed the forms that we had signed and our passports, and were ushered into a windowless room with chairs, a movie screen, a laptop, and a projector. The guy came in and said, "The presentation is two hours, then a break, then an hour and a half or so. Maybe then you have questions. We should be finished at five and something. I'm sorry if it's a little boring, but this is what the Ministry demands." I was in shock. I had been thinking an hour, maybe two. But four hours, no, this can't be. The place was bleak, indeed. It reminded me of the bunker of an edifice, now demolished, where I spent fifth through eighth grade, the former East Rock Community School. Except dingier.

The video, I have to say, wasn't badly conceived. The presenters were two Italianized foreigners, Constantine (sp?) of I forget where (Greece perhaps, or Croatia?) and the beautiful Alison of Eritrea. I was particularly struck by her recounting that she had come to Italy as an undocumented person, and speaking at times from this perspective, she assured the viewer of those services available in Italy even to undocumented immigrants. I'm not sure, however, how any undocumented person would end up in that room watching the video. Unfortunately  the production values weren't very high. Both the presenters were somewhat in need of makeup, a few retakes would have served them well, and not a few of the cuts were oddly placed.

Despite all of the good intentions, it was deadly boring. The first hour was on the Constitution and demographics of Italy. During the part on the presence of various religious attributions, I noted the claim that there were 13,000 pagans in Italy. Insert your own snarky comment. The second hour was on the various documents that matter to foreigners, where to get them, how to apply for them, etc.

After two hours the guy came back, turned on the lights and said, "Brec?," which is Italian for "break?" So fifteen minutes to stretch, run out for coffee, etc. A few didn't come back.

The third hour of the video began with health cards and how to use the national health services. Following that was other services of social assistance. A list was presented, detailing those things for which one could seek social assistance. One of them, I'm not making this up, and I checked my translation with someone, was,

"To feel more involved and not so alone."

I'll keep the number close by.

I have rarely felt so bored and held captive, though one of late sections, on traffic violations and how to retrieve impounded vehicles and appeal traffic tickets to Caesar, was marginally entertaining. During the fourth hour, while the presenters were speaking in great detail on how to register one's children in elementary school, the guy came in and turned the thing off. Nobody complained. Maybe he had pity on us. Maybe he saw the large proportion of priests and religious in the group and guessed that such issues didn't matter so much for us. Maybe he wanted to go home. He called our names, we signed next to them, and were free to go.

I left the sadness of Via Ostiense 131/L at the very end of daylight. I took the 23 bus down to the neighborhood of St. Peter's so I could pick up a couple of little booklets for Mass and prayers for one of the new friars here who is just starting with the Italian. Walking through St. Peter's Square, I saw coming towards me a classic Franciscan sight: a gang of OFMs, complete with satchels and guitars, no doubt on their way to praise the Most High and Glorious God with Franciscan joy.

"Frati Minori! Pace e bene!" I exclaimed, arms outstretched.

One managed a pace e bene in return, though mostly they had that look of, 'oh no, weirdo alert.'

Is it perverse that without my habit on I enjoy making such grand Franciscan greetings, whereas, had I been in my habit I probably would have settled for a sober wave or nod of the head? Is it a sign of some passive aggressive rage I have against this movement with which I have identified myself? It's a curious thing in any case.

From there it was two more buses--the second of which was an hour wait, I know not why--to get home, quite worn out. But I have to say, to pray Vespers all alone and by just the light of a Roman bus stop is a peculiarly wonderful solitude.

November 3, 2012

The Saints Know Our Troubles

From the Roman Martyrology for today:

"At Urgell in Catalonia, Spain, Saint Hermengaudius [or Ermengol, etc.], bishop, among the glorious prelates who took care to restore the church in the lands freed from the yoke of the Moors, who, at the effort and work of building a bridge with his own hands, fell and broke his head between the stones."

He is, according to Italian Wikipedia, the patron saint of bridge builders.

November 1, 2012

All Saints Ramble

Everywhere I've been to Sunday Mass in Italy, both inside and outside of religious houses (with the exception of Santa Susanna in Rome, where you can go if you just want to sing out of Gather Comprehensive and have that slightly-to-the-liberal-side-of-center standard American sort of worship-experience), they seem to use this little Sunday bulletin/worship aid published by San Paolo and called La Domenica. It's actually pretty good. It has the readings and proper prayers of the day, as well as the Gloria and Creed printed in it. There's a little reflection on the front and a formula for the Universal Prayer inside. I usually expect such things to be not very good, but these aren't bad.

Today, however, on this solemnity of All Saints, I was a little disappointed. The reflection was too much history and not enough eschatology. And on the front are the patron saints of Europe: Benedict, Cyril and Methodius, Bridget of Sweden, Catherine of Siena, Edith Stein. Now I have nothing against these saints in their service as patrons of Europe (although, as I expressed in this post, I have worry that Italian devotion to St. Benedict risks giving new birth to the excesses of Joachim of Fiore); indeed patron saints of Europe must be very busy in this tempo di crisi, as the phrase goes here in Italy. Personally, I've been praying to St. Benedict recently. My first priest, the good Fr. Larry at Connecticut College, has always maintained that I am supposed to be a Benedictine rather than a Franciscan. I have always dismissed this, but lately I've started to wonder. Maybe it's just the temptation of living near Norcia. And of course I'm more or less in love with Edith Stein; probably the best homily I've given in Italian was just a quote from her Kreuzeswissenschaft for the feast of the Stigmata of St. Francis. When I think about her description of her famous conversion-prayer moment in Frankfurt, it touches my own experience so strongly. It's funny; for my mothers and fathers in religious life the iconic moment in this mold seems to be Merton on the corner of 4th and Walnut; for me it's a struggle between feeling like Edith Stein in Frankfurt or like Lovecraft in Brooklyn.

But to get back to the patrons of Europe, all those saints have their proper days in the calendar; they don't need to be on the cover of the bulletin today. To me the feast of All Saints is about them, for sure, but also for all the saints who are unknown, who will never be canonized for the veneration and encouragement of the Church Militant. Indeed, we go through the cycles of the liturgical year celebrating the feast of this or that saint, we can read the Martyrology each day and meet even more. But to believe in the salvation we have in Christ, it seems to me, is to confess that all of these are but a small fraction of the members of the Church Triumphant. And because we who are still on the journey of this life hope to join the saints one day, but because few of us will ever be canonized, today is the day we look forward to as our own future feast day. Indeed, that is our hope as we pray through this day; that one day we will find ourselves on the other side of the praise and veneration that goes up from the Church Militant to the Church Triumphant on All Saints Day.

As St. Bernard reminds us in the Office of Readings today, this is, in fact, the function of All Saints Day. Not that the saints should gain anything from our venerating them, but that our recollection of their destiny should kindle in us the desire to share it.

resurgamus cum Christo, quaeramus quae sursum sunt, quae sursum sapiamus

says St. Bernard, riffing on the great Pauline Easter slogan, 'seek the things that are above,' sursum sunt quaerite. (Colossians 3:1)

"Let us rise again with Christ, may we seek the things that are above, may we taste what is above."

That's the spiritual life; seeking after a taste once tasted. Yearning for a God once glimpsed, but who seems to recede from our understanding and who seems to resist our comprehension. And indeed, it is supposed to be this way, because God refuses to be reduced to a 'thing' that can be possessed, that can be had like any other created good, much less any other consumer commodity. And this is why prayer is the first and best school of evangelical poverty, because what we seek can't be possessed in any way that our created bodies and minds can understand, and because as we settle into the 'uninteresting wilderness' of prayer, we find that our very desire for what we have tasted is itself the bread for our journey. It is the desire that turns out to be rest, and this is the way in which our prayer takes shape, as we journey to the Father, as the mirror image of the self-emptying God, of the immolated Christ.

non enim dispositus est aliquo modo ad contemplationes divinas, quae ad mentales ducunt excessus, nisi cum Daniele sit vir desideriorum.

"One is not ready in any way for the divine contemplations, which lead to interior ecstasy, unless he be like Daniel a man of desires." (St. Bonaventure, The Journey of the Mind to God, prologue, 3)